Glossary of Terms
Glass-Fiber Reinforced Products
The abacus is the top part of a column capital. Abacus may be a square slab or a molded shape. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or Architectural Fiberglass column capitals, the abacus may be cast as part of the capital or as a separate piece. Latin: “abacus” = table, tablet. Found in classical Greek and Roman architecture and derivatives, including Beaux Arts Classicism, Classical Revival, Federal, Georgian Revival, Greek Revival, Neoclassicism, Renaissance Revival, Second Empire, Gothic and Gothic Revival. Abacus may be cast stone, FRP (Architectural Fiberglass,) GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete,) GRG (glass fiber reinforced gypsum,) plaster, bronze, granite or marble.
Acroterion / Acroterium
Ashlar is the term for rectilinear, squared-off blocks of stone used in building. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) are produced in various aslar types. The GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass ashlar may be individual blocks, but is often large panels with scored “false joints” and interlocking joints.
The complete railing system consisting of the Baluster, top rail and sometimes bottom rail. Balustrade is typically used at the edge of a patio, porch, balcony or roof. Several styles of balustrade are available in GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) as well as GFRP (architectural fiberglass).
Band or Band Molding
The horizontal molding, projecting from the surface that wraps around a building. Also known as a belt course or watertable.
Masonry style were adjacent courses are of two different sizes, textures or types. For example, a brown, smooth Architectural Fiberglass, alternating with a white limestone Architectural Fiberglass.
A column where the column shaft has drums that alternate in texture or size.
The style of architecture and decoration first developed in 17th-century Italy. Characterized by the conspicuous use of decoration, sculpture and decorative elements. Elements from the later phases of the Baroque, called for Rococo are characterized by profuse ornamentation. Elements of the Baroque are found in the late 19th century work of American architects McKim, Mead and White.
A semi-cylindrical, arched ceiling element. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) barrel vaults may be smooth or coffered.
The lower part of a column, pier, pedestal or pilaster. Column bases may be either Attic column bases or Tuscan.
A sculpted or carved work that extends slightly from the plane of its background. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) basreliefs, include plaques, monuments and medallions. What is believed to be the largest GFRC bas-relief sculpture in the world, was created by Stromberg in 2006. For the reproduction of bas-relief in glass fiber reinforced concrete, a model is produced in clay, wood or plaster. A mold is then made using silicone rubber and a hard shell of fiberglass. Once the mold is removed from the model, the GFRC is cast. Depending on the size of the glass fiber reinforced concrete bas relief, a metal armature on the interior, generally galvanized or stainless steel, may be cast in. The casting is then sand blasted or acid washed to remove the cement film from the surface of the glass fiber reinforced concrete and to obtain the desired finish.
A term used to describe a surface that is inclined or tilted, wider at the bottom and narrower at the top, for example a battered wall.
A convex molding of semicircular section.
The term for a horizontal member, when used in Architectural Fiberglass or GFRP typically refers to a beam cover. Architectural Fiberglass beams may replicate stone or wood.
A molding or moldings on the cornice of an entablature, below the corona.
The part of a tower or steeple where bells are hung. Also called a bell tower.
A roof or dome shaped in section similar to a bell. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) typically cast in pie shape sections, and assembled on-site.
Tower like structure for supporting one or more bells. Can contain real bells or play recorded music.
Horizontal band around the facade of the building, also called a band course or string course.
An elevated or rooftop gazebo or pavilion from which to enjoy a view.
Also known as a chamfer, bevels are sometimes incorporated in the edges of architectural GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) to minimize chipping of sharp 90° corners.
A short freestanding column designed to limit vehicle traffic or act as security. GFRC Bollards at the US Capital
A support that carries or appears to carry the weight of the cornice, eave or balcony. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) brackets are typically decorative covers, and do not actually carry any weight.
Any cornice, supported by brackets. In GFRC (glass fiber enforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) brackets may be molded into the cornice, or applied as separate pieces.
A spire, octagonal in shape, above a square tower.
A pediment whose horizontal cornice is continuous, but whose angled cornice above ends before reaching the highest point of the pediment. The resulting opening is often field with an urn or finial. Often found in Georgian style, Queen Anne Style, Colonial Revival, and Neoclassical Style buildings.
A reddish or brown sandstone used extensively for buildings in the eastern United States from the early 19th century through the 1920’s. Stromberg GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) using pigments and select aggregates can replicate the color and texture of Brownstone.
The re-creating of the form and details of a building, as it appeared at a particular time. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) is an accepted material of replacement for terra-cotta, carved stone, cut stone, brownstone and some cast iron elements.
Stone used in building construction such as limestone, marble, granite or sandstone. Building Stone may be used as a facing on GFRP (architectural fiberglass) panels, or GFRC (glass fiber enforced concrete) can be cast with building Stone aggregates to replicate the look and appearance of cut stone.
Bull's Eye Window
A round window, surrounded by decorative molding often found in gables or pediments. Also called an oculus, oeil de boeuf, or ox eye window.
Window that has a slight arch at the top.
Spanish word for bell tower.
In Spanish Colonial architecture, a waterspout used to direct rainwater through the face of the parapet and away from the walls. In modern times, canale made from GFRP (architectural fiberglass,) may be functional or merely decorative.
An outside corner of a building, decorated with a projecting masonry course, pilasters or similar elements.
The uppermost element of a column or plaster. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) column capitals are available as Corinthian, Ionic, Doric, Tuscan, Scammozi, Composite and temple of the winds as well as custom shapes.
An ornamented tablet or shield often framed by elaborate carving.
Cast Iron Architecture
Ornamental cast iron that replicated stone columns and beams that was popular in many American cities especially New York, St. Louis, and New Orleans. The cast iron architecture was characterized by the use of repetitive modules. Many cast iron facades were created in the Italianate Style and Second Empire style. No longer readily available in cast iron, missing components of the structures are effectively replaced with GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass). Molds for the GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) may be taken from existing elements, or re-created from historic drawings or photographs.
A dome used for the interior ceiling. May be part of a double dome system with interior and exterior domes.
An ornament for the ceiling, generally round, oval or hexagonal shape.
Made from heated limestone and shale, Portland cement when combined with aggregate, glass fibers and polymers is cast to create GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete).
Also known as Chateauesque style. A style of architecture based on the monumental French Chateau’s of the 16th century. Chateau style was introduced in America by Richard Morris Hunt. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) and GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) architectural elements that are available in the Chateau style include limestone facade, pilasters, pinnacles, dormers, finials, gables, balustrade, built courses, gargoyles, griffins, roof cresting, pedimented parapets, corner turrets, decorative chimneys, ornamental chimney caps, hood moldings, fireplace mantles, etc.
The vertical structure that contains one or more flues and carries of smoke and combustion products from a fireplace. Chimneys can be important design elements, and the use GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) chimney covers with a brick, Fieldstone, carved stone or other texture allows for light weight, weather resistant and noncombustible alternative to traditional chimney construction.
A cornice or coping that crowns the top of the chimney. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) chimney caps are noncombustible and protect masonry chimneys from rain and whether. GFRC chimney caps may have a molded profile, and a texture of sandstone, limestone, coral stone or other material. Architectural fiberglass ceiling medallion in art deco style Architectural fiberglass ceiling medallion in art deco style
Noncombustible covering that protects the opening at the top of the chimney from snow and rain but allows smoke to escape. GFRC (glass fiber Chimney Hood Noncombustible covering that protects the opening at the top of the chimney from snow and rain but allows smoke to escape. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) is non combustible, weather resistant and relatively light and so an excellent choice for a chimney top.
A round decorative shape on top of the chimney, used to increase its height and as a decorative element. Custom GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) chimney pots are available in a range of styles and sizes, generally used with a cast stone or terra-cotta color. Since GFRC is non combustible and relatively light, it is a safe and intelligent material to use in this application.
A pattern having five lobes divided like cusps, found in windows in the Gothic revival style.
Recessed panels in the ceiling, arch or dome; they may be square or octagonal and sometimes are highly ornamented. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or GFRP (architectural fiberglass) coffers are used for exterior applications or GFRG for interiors.
The exterior covering of a building. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) and GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) cladding may be supplied with a metal framework behind the cladding, or as individual panels.
A window having the shape of a full circle. Often with keystones set at four points, in a radial manner.
A tower for a clock. May feature chimes.
In classical architecture consists of the capital the shaft and a base shaft may be either monolithic (one piece,) built up of a number of cylinders, or may be split vertically, to wrap a structural column. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) columns have a typical average wall thickness of between ½” and 1”.
The concrete portion of GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete,) which is formed by mixing an aggregate, such as crushed stone or sand, with Portland cement, polymers and water.
A bracket, in the form of the scroll which projects from a wall and supports a door head, cornice, fireplace mantel, shelf, etc. also known as an ancon. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) corbels and brackets may be modified and used as consoles.
A limestone formed from prehistoric shells and coral. Coquina stone was used in the construction of Spanish colonial dwellings in early Florida. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) with Coquina stone texture and feel, is produced using a special manufactured mold, produced from quarried Coquina stone, and a specially designed GFRC mixture. Coquina stone columns, piers and trim are available as well as coquina window and door surrounds and other architectural components in GFRC. Coquina stone GFRC is available in a range of mottled pastel colors. Because the areas where coquina stone was once quarried are now either developed or in environmentally sensitive locations, GFRC cast coquina is an environmentally superior solution. The coquina texture is also available in panels, brackets, keystones, etc in GFRP (architectural fiberglass).
A Roman modification of the Corinthian capital has volutes similar to an Ionic capital. Since the composite capital is less widely used than the other orders, it is available in only a few stock sizes in GFRP (architectural fiberglass), and is generally a custom piece.
The Composite Order developed late in the Roman period as modified version of the Corinthian Order. The acanthus leaves of the normal Corinthian capital were combined with the volutes of the Ionic Order. The other details of the columns and the entablature resemble those of the Corinthian Order. While the Ionic and Corinthian Orders are two of the three Greek Orders of Architecture, the Composite order was not used by the Greeks. The composite order is less widely used than other orders and is available in fewer stock sizes in GFRP (architectural fiberglass), but can be custom fabricated.
A sedimentary limestone, formed from fossilized coral and seashells. Coral stone was widely used in construction of many of the great mansions in southern Florida, and was popularized by architects such as Addison Mizner. Coral Stone GFRP (architectural fiberglass) is available in a range of pastel colors and white. GFRP coral stone is stronger than quarried coral stone and architectural fiberglass is readily available and is more environmentally friendly. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) cast with coral stone texture, provides a material which is virtually indistinguishable from quarried coral stone. Coral stone ashlar, coral stone columns, coral stone brackets, coral stone piers, balusters, trim, wall cap and other coral stone shapes are all available in Architectural Fiberglass.
A projecting bracket, often decorated, designed to support an architectural element above it. A variety of stock mold GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) corbels and brackets are available.
The capital for the Corinthian column. A series of acanthus leaves, surrounding a central bell.
An engaged pilaster, located at the corner of the building or colonnade.
Term for the continuation of a cornice, either back to the wall where it terminates, or in a change direction, at a gable end.
The overhanging vertical member of a cornice in classical architecture.
A decorative design along the ridge of a roof, cornice, coping or parapet. Usually highly ornamented and often perforated. Often found in the Château style, Second Empire style, and Queen Anne style, but also found on other styles. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) cresting incorporates stainless steel or other non-corroding anchors which allow it to be bolted to the structure below.
Capital of the Romanesque style and Gothic style that somewhat resembles a cushion.
A molding with the double curved shape of an S in section.
A panel or “stone” of GFRC, inscribed with the date of completion of the building, and sometimes other information. The glass fiber reinforced concrete date stone may be a cornerstone, a plaque or keystone.
Gothic ornaments of medieval origin, usually plantlike in form, placed along the edge of the sloping surface of pinnacles or spires. Most often seen in Gothic revival architecture. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) Crockets are generally cast with a stainless steel or noncorrosive metal all thread through them to allow for attachment to the structure.
One of a row of “tooth like” blocks, set in a molding or cornice. These are part of the classical ornamentation of the Ionic, Composite, Corinthian and Doric orders. Found in Federal style, Adams style, Classical Revival style, French Eclectic architecture, Georgian style, and Greek revival architecture. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) moldings may be cast with the dentils as part of the molding, or the dentils may be cast separately and attached after casting. It is important that dentil molding and cornice with dentils be properly laid out so that the dentil spacing is uniform. This is generally done by the manufacturer in the shop drawings stage.
A roof structure generally shaped like a segment of a sphere, but may also be polygon or oval in plan. Large GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) domes are generally cast in pie shaped segments, and assembled on-site. Smaller domes, generally less than eight to 10 feet diameter, may be cast as one piece units, or in segments. If the dome is a decorative element to be viewed from the exterior only, the roof is put in place, and the dome placed above it. Similarly if the dome is to be viewed from the interior only, it may be suspended from the ceiling structure above it. If the domes are to be viewed from both the interior and the exterior then a double dome is required with insulation placed between the inner and outer dome. Exterior glass reinforced concrete and architectural fiberglass domes may be molded smooth or textured, with ribs or even with the molded in shape of roof tile, or glazed mosaic tile. Interior domes in GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) may be smooth, ribbed, or coffered. In some applications both an exterior dome of GFRC or architectural fiberglass, and an interior dome of GFRG or architectural fiberglass are used. Between the inner dome and outer dome, the dome cavity may be insulated.
A structure or decorative element around the doorway. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) door surrounds range from the simple to the very ornate and are used with every style of architecture.
The top or capital of a column or pilaster of the Doric order.
Architectural element which projects from a sloping roof. Dormers usually contain a vertical window or louvers. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) dormers are generally not part of the roof structure but are cast separately. Because the great variety of dormers, GFRC and GFRP dormers are generally custom-made for the needs of a specific project. Include such variations as the arch dormer, eyebrow dormer, Flathead dormer, hip dormer, Mission dormer, Palladian dormer, pointed dormer, random dormer, triangular dormer and through the cornice wall dormer.
Double Bellied Baluster
A baluster with two vase shaped “bellies,” the same profile on the upper and lower half. GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass balusters are available in a large selection of standard profiles.
Double Lancet Window
A window surround with two pointed Lancet windows side-by-side.
Cylindrical metal rod often used to secure two pieces of GFRC together, or to secure GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) to another material. Dowels for GFRC are generally stainless steel or galvanized steel. Shown are typical dowel anchors for GFRC.
A horizontal molding over a door or window designed to channel rainwater away from the wall surface and as a decorative element.
The underside of the part of the roof that projects beyond the exterior wall. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) eaves may be coffered or plain.
Egg and Dart Molding
An ornamental molding with a repeating pattern of egg shaped ornaments alternating with dart shaped ornaments.
A style of architecture suggestive of the architecture of ancient Egypt. This architecture usually exhibits elements such as Lotus capitals, columns that bulge or that imitate papyrus stocks, Egyptian Gorge, winged sun discs, etc.
Also known as Egyptian cornice, Cavetto cornice, Gorge-and-roll cornice. Consisting of a large cavetto molding (round concave molding continuing at least a quarter circle) sometimes decorated with vertical leaves, and a roll molding below.
A column, attached to a wall. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) engaged columns, may be half round or three quarter round.
An entablature, is a horizontal band and molding supported by columns. Entablatures or horizontally divided into three basic elements: the architrave (the upper most portion;) the frieze (the middle section,) and the cornice (the top section.) The proportions and details of an entablature are different depending on the order (Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian or Composite.) GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) entablatures may be cast as U shaped sections to wrap a structural beam or be hollow and feature internal ribs for stiffening or an internal steel frame.
A slight convex curve added to the tapered profile of classical columns. Entasis is used to overcome the optical illusion of concavity of straight sided shafts.
A door surround at the main entry to a home or building.
A pointed, centered arch whose radius of curvature is equal to the width of the opening.
A lintel over a door or window, with a slight arch to it. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) eyebrow lintels may be designed to be structural or nonstructural.
The exterior skin of a building, which is considered to be the architectural face or front.
Style architecture that developed in the postcolonial era in America. It was greatly influenced by the work of Robert Adam. Buildings constructed in the Federal style may contain the following architectural elements: large entrance porticos, columns and pilasters, cornice with moldings, quoins, festoons, garlands, urns, swags, dentils and egg and dart moldings. Many GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) elements are available as stock patterns or maybe custom fabricated in the Federal style.
The decoration of suspended flowers, fruit, foliage, ribbons, etc. found in the Beaux Arts Style, Colonial Revival, Adam style and Federal style. Also known as garland or swag.
Construction of individual stones for walls and chimneys. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) field stone panels are available in a variety of stone types, colors and textures. GFRC and GFRP field stone panels allow for fast installation and quality workmanship.
An ornament that tops a gate pier, pinnacle, spire or pediment. Typical GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) finials might be urns, pineapples, acorns, obelisks, etc. How bored was the intern having to input all of this? Very.
A shelf or entablature over a fireplace opening. Stromberg GFRC offers a selection of stock moldings and corbels that are used as fireplace mantles. Glass fiber reinforced concrete, being non combustible, is an ideal material for fireplace mantels.
The frame around a fireplace opening. The surround consists of the side supports, which may be columns, engaged columns, pilasters, corbels, ancones or moldings, and the top entablature or shelf. GRC is an excellent choice for fireplace surrounds since it is non combustible. Glass fiber reinforced concrete fireplace surrounds can be cast in a texture and color to replicatecut stone or cast stone.
The floor of the fireplace opening. GFRC fireplace hearths are designed to extend into the room and the glass fiber reinforced concreteprovides the non combustible material to protect the floor.
Flat Keystone Arch
Shallow vertical grooves on a column or pilaster shaft.
From the French word “foil” meaning “leaf”. A leaf-shaped curve or lobe, formed between points called cusps inside an arch or circle. Used in Gothic style tracery windows. The number of foils is indicated by a prefix, e.g. trefoil (three lobes,) quatrefoil (4 lobes,) cinquefoil, sexfoil, multifoil. Found in Gothic and Gothic Revival Styles and others.
A decoration of suspended flowers, fruit, foliage, ribbons, etc. found in the Beaux Arts Style, Colonial Revival, Adam style, Federal style and others. Also known as a festoon or swag. Garland may be incorporated into GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) elements such as door heads, planters, panels, cartouches, etc.
A term of endearment for a structure that is functionally useless but designed for visual interest or effect, such as a false ruin in a garden or a gazebo that is designed to complete a garden vista or scene.
A type of running ornament consisting of repeated and symmetrical figures, often in relief, contained within a band or border. Old French: “fret” meaning grating.
The middle section of the entablature. Above the architrave and below the cornice.
Known as the pediment in Classical architecture. The gable is the triangular portion of the wall, between the enclosing lines of a sloping roof. Gable cornice in GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or GFRP (architectural fiberglass) is the cornice that is used at the gable.
A triangular window top that is shaped like a gable or pediment.
A grotesque figure, projecting from a building. A gargoyle may function as a waterspout or be purely decorative. Found in the Gothic, Queen Ann and Tudor Styles of architecture. GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass gargoyles are available as stock and custom designs. Generally attached with threaded rods.
A small garden house, normally round or polygonal in plan, designed for providing a view. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) gazebos typically feature GFRC columns, a GFRC or Architectural Fiberglass entablature and a GFRC or Architectural Fiberglass dome or roof. Gazebos are sometimes referred to as a garden house or summerhouse.
A window or door surround with rusticated alternating large and small blocks of stone. Named after the Scottish architect Joshamee Gibbs (1682-1754,) considered by many to be the most influential church architect in London during the early 18th century.
A grating or pierced panel, used to cover, decorate or protect an opening. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) grilles (or grills) can be produced in a variety of sizes and shapes.
A type of ornament either running or enclosed usually consisting of the grape vine with leaves, and clusters of grapes. Used as a decorative element for cornices and interior moldings.
Formed by two barrel vaults intersecting. The groin is the edge or ridge where the two vaults intersect. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) being relatively light and moldable, is a perfectly suitable material for the production of barrel vaults and groined vaults. Heh, groin.
Type of ornament consisting of circular openings created by two or more curved bands overlapping each other in a continuous series. Guilloche details in GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass are generally used in cornice, banding or moldings.
When a balustrade connects to a wall, pier or plinth, a half baluster may be used. Also known as an engaged Baluster.
Column that is engaged to wall projects from the wall by about one half its diameter. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) half columns are available in all of the classical orders (Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian) is will is custom column styles and sizes.
The head is the top horizontal cross member of a door, window, fireplace surround or other opening. Window and door heads in GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass may be plain or ornamented. Used in a sentence: the head in the bathroom at the bar was fantastic.
The part of the fireplace floor that extends into the room. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) being noncombustible, makes an ideal material for a fireplace hearth. When used as a hearth, glass fiber reinforced concrete is typically cast solid or has ribbing added to the underside. The hearth is buttered full with mortar, and is set in a full mortar bed.
The stone or stone like part of the fireplace floor that extends into the room. Synonymous with hearth although a hearthstone typically refers to a one piece stone or (GFRC) hearth. When used as a hearth, glass fiber reinforced concrete is typically cast solid or has ribbing added to the underside. The hearth is buttered full with mortar, and is set in a full mortar bed.
Protecting molding over a door or window, usually intended to direct rainwater from the face of the wall. The term hood molding is generally used when the molding is arched and is known as a label molding if it extends horizontally above the opening. Typical of the Chateau, English country, and Italianate Styles.
A type of bas-relief were the sculpted or molded figures project to a larger degree from the background plane. Also known as alto-relievo. For the reproduction of bas-relief in glass fiber reinforced concrete or architectural fiberglass, a model is produced in clay, wood or plaster. A mold is then made using silicone rubber and a hard shell of fiberglass. Once the mold is removed from the model, the GFRC or Architectural Fiberglass are cast. Depending on the size of the glass fiber reinforced concrete or GFRP bas relief, a metal armature on the interior, generally galvanized or stainless steel, may be cast in. The casting is then sand blasted or acid washed to remove the cement film from the surface of the glass fiber reinforced concrete and to obtain the desired finish.
A rounded arch consisting of more than half a circle, so that the widest span of the arch is larger than the opening at the bottom of the arch.
A decorative element found at the spring point of an arch.
Horizontal element or covering above a door or window that provides shade or shelter or a decorative element. Above a fireplace or cooking area, the hood is a covering over the fireplace or grill that diverts smoke up the chimney.
The column capital of the Ionic order. The volutes on this column capital resemble a stylized form of rams’ horns or nautilus shells.
The Jack arch is the same as a flat arch. Thrilling.
Jamb is the name for one of the vertical members on either side of a door, window or fireplace surround.
The wedge-shaped block at the top center of an arch. GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass keystones may be plain or embellished.
An exterior horizontal molding, generally above a window or door, used to direct rainwater from the face of the wall and the opening below.
A pointed, Gothic style arch.
A narrow window shaped like a Lancet arch.
A molding with a recess for concealed lighting. Column in architectural fiberglass with a GFRG capital and GFRG light cove.
An elaborate gallery or porch that is either connected to or contained inside a larger structure. It is either colonnaded or arcaded and usually placed in a prominent location. Loggias are open to the outside on at least one side, to provide a protected outdoor rest area. When colonnaded loggias are open on only one side, they typically feature pilasters on the oposite wall. Loggias may feature balusters between the columns. GFRC columns for Loggias are available in all the classical orders including tuscan columns, doric columns, ionic columns and corinthian columns and with smooth or fluted columns shafts.
A type of column capital that resembles the crown of a palm tree.
A triangular shaped gable consisting of a tympanum with raked cornices on either side. In classical architecture the pediment was the low triangular gable, usually above a door, a window, or crowning a portico.
A suspended carved element.
`The curved transition wall surface between a dome, or a dome drum, and the wall below.
A portico with five columns.
An open garden structure designed for the support of climbing plants. Design with regularly spaced columns or post.
A colonnaded walkway surrounding the exterior of the building or an open area.
A flat column or pillar, attached to a wall.
The carved element that resembles a pineapple or a pine cone. Pineapple ornaments are said to be the symbol of hospitality. Pineapple ornaments are used as finials for gates or pier caps, or over doorways.
A tapered upright structure rising from the roof of a building or used as a finial.
Inscribed tablet fixed to the surface of a wall.
The bottom most square or rectangular base of a column, pilaster pedestal or pier.
The covered entry way for an automobile to protect the people arriving by vehicle from inclement weather.
Stone set at the external corner of a building, used to accentuate corner.
Covered entrance with a roof supported by columns, and usually with a pediment above.
A four lobed, clover shaped pattern, most common in Gothic, Venetian, and Gothic revival architecture.
A cladding method designed to minimize rain water intrusion into walls. The GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass rain screen systems combine a vented exterior cladding, an air cavity / drainage layer and a water resistant support wall.
The molding carved or shaped to resemble a twisted rope.
Square or round pattern with a central floral motif.
The circular space in a building, especially when covered by a dome.
A dormer with a circular window.
Circular window, panel or decorative element.
Running ornament refers to any ornaments in which the design is repetitive and continuous
Type of stone masonry with strongly emphasized recessed joints. Each individual masonry unit may have its edges chamfered or otherwise tooled to accentuate the joints.
Series with continuous curves, made up of semi circular segments and resembling the shell of the scallop.
Deep concave shaped molding. Especially refers to the concave shape of a classical column base.
A spiral formed ornamental shape, either as part of a running ornament, or as part of a volute as on an Ionic capital or bracket.
An arch where the head is less than a full half circle, but is only a segment of a circle. Historically, segmental arches are most often found in Georgian style, Italianate style, Spanish colonial and Federal style architecture.
The rafter tail is the external part of the Rafter that overhangs the wall at the eaves.
Term used to describe a cornice or a molding that is inclined. For example the raked cornice of a triangular pediment.
The right-angle turn of a molding. A cast stone molding with a return is one that makes a right angle turn back to the wall as a way of terminating the molding.
The exposed edge portion of molding between its outer face and a groove or opening, such as a window or door.
A dormer with an arched roof. The name is derived fromb the dormers roof being a segment of a circle.
A pediment above a roof or window which has a rounded top, in other words, a segment of a circle. Also known as a curved pediment.
An arch with a semicircular head.
A fanlight, semicircular in shape, usually over the main entry door.
A window with a semicircular head or a window having the shape of a semicircle.
An arch in the shape of half of an ellipse.
In tracery, a window or foil with six cusps. From the French word “foil” meaning “leaf”. A leaf-shaped curve or lobe, formed between points called cusps inside an arch or circle. Used in Gothic style tracery windows. Also in fountain pools having the sexfoil shape in plan.
An architectural element that resembles half a scallop shell, used as the head of a niche, or as a decorative element.
A banding that wraps a building horizontally at the height of the window sills.
The underside of any architectural component that is overhead, including the exposed underside of a beam, arch, balcony, lintel or cornice.
A stairway with approximately wedge-shaped treads, circular in plan. Also known as a helical stair, circular stair or caracole.
Any tall slender pointed roof element. Spires or steeples may be architectural fiberglass or GFRC. Spires are generally of one piece construction or made in segments for bolting to the structure. The architectural fiberglass or GFRC skin wraps a steel framework.
A lintel with a top dimension larger than the bottom dimension, so that each end slants upwards away from the center line of the window.
Also known as the springing point is the place where the arch begins and were the curved arch rests on the vertical support below. The Springer is also the term for the first or lowest voussoirs or stones of an arch.
The decorative detail at the end of each step in a stairway.
A raised rib at roofing panels or dome Segments.
A tall slender structure, generally above a church tower or a cupola. Usually topped by a small spire or cross. Steeples may be GFRP (architectural fiberglass) or GFRC.
Also known as superposition, refers to the placing of one order of classical columns above another. For example Doric columns at the first floor and Ionic at the second floor directly above them.
Frame or decorative element around a doorway, a window or a fireplace. See door surround, fireplace surround or window surround.
A decorative element representing a garland of ribbons, draped fabric, flowers or fruit, appearing to be tied at the end and draping down in the middle. Drip.
A pediment with a sloping S-shaped element on either side. The name comes from the S-shaped pediment tops that are somewhat similar to the necks two swans facing each other.
Architectural terra-cotta is a Clay which is been molded and shape, fired in a kiln and glazed. Terra-cotta was used as a facing on buildings in America mostly from around 1860 until the 1930s. In historic restorations, because of difficulties in replacing terra-cotta, color matching and durability issues, GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or FRP (fiber reinforced polymer) is often used as the terra-cotta replacement. Stromberg produces a special glazed GFRC and a fiberglass (FRP) which closely resembles glazed terra-cotta. Custom color matching is available, and new GFRC elements can be created with molds taken from existing terracotta, or from historic drawings and photographs if the terra-cotta no longer exists.
An arch with voussoirs (stones) cut horizontally or vertically so that they line up with the masonry courses.
A gable with the stepped edge.
The term used to describe architectural style and decorative designs created by Louis H. Sullivan, the American architect.
The Egyptian emblem of the sun, a disk with wings. Sometimes used as a decorative element or window head in Egyptian revival architecture.
A decorative molding that features alternating tongue like shapes and dart like shapes. Similar to egg and dart.
A projecting, convex molding, which forms the “ring” at the base of a column. Architectural columns of the Corinthian and Ionic order typically have the “Attic” style base with two rings. The Tuscan column base has a single torus.
A three lobed pattern in a foil. From the French word “foil” meaning “leaf”. A leaf-shaped curve or lobe, formed between points called cusps inside an arch or circle. Used in Gothic style tracery windows.
A pointed arch with three centers.
A tall, horizontal structure or building.
Lacelike shapes, most often found in Gothic architecture, that create a pattern in windows and other openings.
An open lattice or grate for the support of vines and other climbing plants.
A simple arch with no curves, created by two diagonal elements meeting at a point.
A dormer with a triangular roof.
A Doric frieze ornament, consisting of a rectangular block with two V shaped grooves and two half V grooves on either edge. Trigyphs alternate with sculptured or plain blocks called metopes. Used in Greek architecture and the Greek Revival style.
The framing or edging of openings and other features on a building, including window surrounds, cornices, base moldings and casings.
A cylindrical tower, often corbelled on the corner of a larger structure. Usually with a conical roof.
A facing of brick, cast stone, GFRC, Architectural Fiberglass or other material that forms a durable, decorative surface over a structure, but is not load bearing itself.
From the Latin for worm, Vermiculated surfaces have a series of wavy, disconnected grooves that resemble worms or the tracks of worms.
A joint in mortar or sealant with a V shaped groove.
A spiral shape, as on an Ionic column capital. From the Latin Volutus for turned. Volutes are also used on the capitals of the Corinthian and Composite column.
The term for one of the blocks or units that make up an arch. The top voussoir is the keystone. The lowest voussoir is the springer.
The covering for the lower part of a wall.
Circular window divided by tracery similar to the spokes of a wheel. Generally found in churches and in gothic architecture and its derivatives.
The upper part of a window such as a pediment or hood
The molding that surrounds a window.
American Institute of Architects (AIA)
American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA)
Beaux Arts Architecture
Architecture taught at and associated with, the Ecole des Beaux Arts. Characterized by formalism in design, heavily rusticated arches, mansard roofs, Symmetrical plans, sculpted figures, banded columns, arched dormers, cartouches, cantons, floral patterns, ornamented keystones, quoins, engaged columns, paired columns, roof line balustrades and garlands. American architects who graduated from the Ecole, include Richard Morris Hunt, designer of the Breakers, William Ware, Charles McKim, Louis Sullivan and Julia Morgan. Facades are typically symmetrical, often with a projecting central pavilion. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) architectural elements are available in the Beaux Arts style including dentils, classical columns, enriched entablatures, pilasters, balconies, cornices, sculpted spandrels, sculpted figures, ornamental keystones, egg and dart moldings, leaf decorations, swags, wreaths, domes, fireplace surrounds and mantles, quoins, cartouches, dormers, fountains, domes, etc.
Classical Revival Styl
Style architecture typified by simplicity dignity and purity of design sometimes referred to as Jeffersonian classicism, because it is often associated with the work of Thomas Jefferson. Examples include Jeffersons home at Monticello, the University of Virginia, and the Virginia State Capitol. It was later revived with some modifications and referred to as the neoclassical style. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) elements that are available in the classical revival style include triangular pediments, columns in the Doric or Tuscan order, Roman Ionic and Corinthian orders. Dentils, triglyphs, fireplace surrounds, door surrounds, moldings, cornice, mantles and balustrade.
One of the three classical orders of architecture. While the Corinthian order takes its name from the city of Corinth in Greece. It actually seems to have been developed in Athens during the fifth century BC. The leaves surrounding the capital represent stylized acanthus leaves. The legend of its origin is that a sculptor, visiting the grave of a young girl, found an urn filled with her possessions, on top of her grave, covered with a square tile on top to protect the contents. An acanthus plant had grown around the urn, curling over at the corners of the tile. Moved and inspired by the sight, he created a column capital in the shape of a round urn encircled with acanthus leaves. The details of the Corinthian column base, shaft and entablature are similar to the Ionic order. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) Corinthian columns are available as standard mold items, and even-numbered diameters (10 inch, 12 inch, 14 inch, etc.) GFRC (glass fiber and first concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) Corinthian pilasters are available in the same sizes. As a loose rule of thumb, Corinthian columns are typically 8 to 12 diameters in height, for example a 1 foot diameter (measured lower shaft) column would be eight to 12 feet tall, and a 2 foot diameter column would be 16 to 24 feet in height.
The Doric Order is the oldest and simplest of the three Greek architectural orders and was invented by the Dorian Greeks. The Doric order is characterized by sturdy proportions and a simple capital. The columns are thicker relative to their height than in the other orders. The Greek Doric column is fluted and has no base. The Roman Doric is usually not fluted and has a base. The entablature is deeper and visually heavier than that of either the Ionic or Corinthian Orders. Doric columns are available in GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) in a variety of standard sizes with shaft diameters typically in even numbered increments (12 inch, 14 inch, 16 inch, etc.)
An English style of architecture, it was the transitional style between Gothic architecture and Renaissance architecture.
French Renaissance Style
The architectural style of the high middle ages in Western Europe. Typified by the great cathedrals, characterized by their flying buttresses, ribbed vaults, tracery, pointed arches, rose windows, etc.
The style of architecture following the forms and spirit of Gothic architecture. GFRP (architectural fiberglass) and GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) architectural elements for Gothic revival architecture include GFRC ashlar masonry, GFRP and GFRC battlements, decorative brackets, foliated ornaments, finials, hood moldings, pinnacles, Crockets, rose windows, pointed arches, quatrefoils, trefoils and turrets. Gothic revival chimneys often feature high, ornamental chimney stacks and chimney pots. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) rose windows and lancet windows as well as various types of tracery are also produced, as well as glass fiber reinforced concrete Gothic columns, Gothic arches and even gargoyles. fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) elements such as door heads, planters, panels, cartouches, etc.
The dominant style of architecture in England during the 18th century, named Georgian after the reigns of the three King Georges from 1714 to 1820. Inspired by the ideals of Andrea Palladio (1508-80)and roman classical architecture popularized by Robert Adam (1728-1792). In the USA, Georgian is similar to and is also referred to as Federal. In New England, Colonial architecture is also referred to as “Georgian.”. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) is uniquely suited to the replication of Georgian style architectural elements, including Georgian style GFRC, columns, capitals, fireplace mantles, cornice, entryways, window and door surrounds, balustrade, ceilings, garden urns and planters, cupolas, domes, dormers, quoins, porticos, keystones, etc.
Greek Revival Style
Style architecture based on ancient Greek forms in architecture such as the Greek orders (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian). Buildings in the Greek revival style were generally rectangular in shape or a combination of rectangles. GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass elements produced the Greek revival style include raked cornice, classical pediments, anthemion, dentils and egg and dart molding. Greek revival style columns in GFRC (glass fiber and first concrete) and GFRP (Architectural Fiberglass) include round or square columns especially Doric columns, Ionic columns and Corinthian columns. Greek revival style entryways in GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) generally wide and imposing and framed by pilasters or engaged columns.
Style architecture influenced by Italian villas. GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) Italianate elements include columns, balustrade, belt courses, balustraded balconies, projecting cornices with decorative brackets and corner quoins. Roof cupolas, belvedere and domes, brackets and other Italianate GFRC and GFRP elements are available.
Italian Renaissance Revival
Architectural style influenced by the Renaisance palazzi of Italy. Appropriate GFRC and Architectural Fiberglass elements include an elaborate belt course between stories, rusticated corner quoins, pilasters and a large cornice. Rounded arches, balcony balustrade and frequently rooftop balusters and balustrade are also featured. Door and window surrounds often featured pedimented heads.
A reinterpretation of classical Greek and Roman architecture. Neoclassical style includes Classical revival style, Greek revival style and Federal style. Characteristics of the neoclassical style include large porticos and columns of the Greek and Roman orders. Columns and pilasters of the Corinthian, Ionic and Doric order.
In classical Greek architecture the orders are Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Romans added the Tuscan and Composite. Each order carries its own entablature, column and base.
A uniquely American architectural style, associated worth the works of Frank Lloyd Wright and Louis Sullivan.
Second Empire Style
An architectural style named after the French second Empire of Napoleon III.
Spanish Colonial Architecture (American)
The architectural style of the Spanish missions, and settlements of the American Southwest. Also known as Mission Architecture. Common architectural elements include columns, domes, canales (water spouts through the roof parapet,) vigas, carved rafter tails and low relief carved door surrounds and window surrounds. Other features sometimes used are decorative cornices and corbels and columns and pilasters along a long covered portale (porch) or arcade, balconies and loggias.
The Tuscan Order was the simplest of the Classical Orders . It developed from Etruscan and early Roman temples. The column capitals and bases are simpler than those of the other orders and the shaft is not fluted. Palladio recommended that its plainness made it suitable for use in buildings of utilitarian function.